Program promotes self-respect for the 计划促进智障人士的自尊

 时间:2017-11-21 07:50:01来源:南方政法网
闽南头条

Liu Shunli, 24, who has Down syndrome, mops the floor at a branch of the Auspicious Phoenix Bakery in Beijing.[Photo by Zou Hong/China Daily]

刘舜丽,24岁,患有唐氏综合症,拖拖地板在北京吉祥凤凰面包店的一个分支。[邹红/中国日报图片]

The government and NGOs are working together to ensure that people can obtain work and improve their lives, as Li Lei reports.

政府和非政府组织正在共同努力,确保人们能够获得工作并改善他们的生活,正如李磊所报告的那样。

In some developed countries, people with intellectual disabilities, such as autism, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome are enrolled in supported employment programs that offer them the opportunity to work. Now China is catching up.

在一些发达国家,患有智力残疾的人,如自闭症、脑瘫和唐氏综合症患者,被纳入支持就业计划,为他们提供工作机会。现在中国正在迎头赶上。

Liu Shunli could be mistaken for a regular store assistant were it not for his clumsy movements and the meticulousness way he performs his tasks, such as attaching price tags to containers, folding cake boxes and mopping the floor at a branch of the Auspicious Phoenix Bakery in Beijing's Shijingshan district.

刘舜丽可能被误认为是一个普通的店员要不是他笨拙的动作和精细的方式,他执行他的任务,如贴价格标签的容器,折叠的蛋糕盒和拖地的吉祥凤凰的面包店在北京的一个分支,是石景山区。

The 24-year-old, who has Down syndrome, has been working at the bakery six days per week from 8 am till 5 pm for more than seven years. He earns about 2,000 yuan ($300) a month, the same as his able-bodied colleagues.

这位患有唐氏综合症的24岁患者,每周早上8点到下午5点工作六天,每周工作七年以上。他每月收入约2000元(合300美元),与他身强力壮的同事一样。

"I like working here. I can earn my own money, and I also have friends here," he said.

“我喜欢在这里工作。我能挣到我自己的钱,我也有朋友在这里,“他说。

Personnel manager Lu Chang said the bakery has been working with organizations that provide vocational training and rehabilitation services for the intellectually disabled since 2010.

人事经理卢昌说,面包店一直在为自2010以来为智障人士提供职业培训和康复服务的组织工作。

Auspicious Phoenix employs more than 20 intellectually disabled people in the capital, working alongside able-bodied members of staff. "We have about 280 branches across Beijing, which is a huge advantage because it allows us to employ people in the bakeries nearest their homes," Lu said.

吉利凤凰在首都雇用了20多名智障人士,与健全的工作人员一起工作。”我们拥有约280个分支机构在北京,这是一个巨大的优势,因为它允许我们使用在面包店最近的家园的人,”卢说。

Yang Xiao, 28, who is intellectually disabled, attaches price tags to containers at the bakery.[Photo by Zou Hong/China Daily]

肖央,28,谁是智障,高度的价格标签的容器在面包店。[邹红/中国日报图片]

Supported jobs

支持工作

Before joining Auspicious Phoenix, Liu enrolled in the Supported Employment Program and received vocational training at Lizhi, a rehabilitation center and a vocational training school for the intellectually disabled in Beijing's southwestern suburbs.

在加入菲尼克斯吉祥,刘参加了支持就业计划,立志接受职业培训,康复中心和在北京的西南郊区的智力残疾人职业培训学校。

Everyone on the program is assigned a mentor, who helps them to acquire basic work skills, select a suitable job and cope with any problems they face at work.

每个人都有一个导师,帮助他们获得基本的工作技能,选择合适的工作,处理他们在工作中遇到的任何问题。

"At the beginning the mentors join them in the workplace, but they gradually reduce the frequency of their visits. After about six months the person can work independently," said Feng Lu, Lizhi's director.

“开始时,导师加入他们的工作场所,但他们逐渐减少访问的次数。”。大约六个月后能独立工作的人,”Feng Lu说,Lizhi的导演。

The concept of supported employment originated in the United States in the 1970s and was later adopted in some European countries, Japan and regions outside the Chinese mainland, such as Hong Kong. Unlike the Chinese government's Aided Employment Policy - which allows the intellectually disabled to work shorter hours for less money - supported employment stresses integration with society and treats the intellectually disabled like able-bodied employees in terms of workload and pay.

支持性就业的年代起源于美国的概念,后来在一些欧洲国家采用,日本和中国大陆以外的地区,如香港。与中国政府的辅助就业政策不同,这一政策允许智力残疾者在较短的时间内以较少的钱工作。支持的就业强调与社会融合,并在工作量和报酬方面对待智力残疾者,如身强力壮的雇员。

According to a 2011 report by the World Labor Organization, "barriers to a person's participation in general community activities are not solely determined by their impairment, but arise in combination with elements of the environment", such as community attitudes.

根据世界劳工组织的2011份报告,“一个人参与一般社区活动的障碍并不完全取决于他们的残疾,而是与环境因素结合起来”,例如社区态度。

"The goal of supported employment is to guarantee the employment rights of the intellectually disabled and help them adapt to society," Feng said.

冯说:“支持就业的目标是保证智障人士的就业权利,帮助他们适应社会。”。

According to the Second National Census of the Disabled in 2006, the latest available statistics, the employment rate for intellectually disabled people was less than 10 percent, the lowest among all disabled groups. Experts estimate that the figure has not changed in the decade since.

根据2006年度第二次全国残疾人普查,最新的统计数字显示,智障人士的就业率不足10%,是所有残疾人中最低的。专家估计,这一数字自十年以来没有变化。

Zhang Baolin, chairman of the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disability and their Relatives, said more recent surveys conducted by NGOs also suggest that the rate is unchanged. "The figure is lower still if 'fake employment' is taken into consideration," he said, referring to the practice whereby intellectually disabled people receive a salary from employers but never leave their homes.

张宝琳,智力残疾人和他们的亲属的人的中国协会主席,表示最近的调查也表明,非政府组织的速度是不变的。”他说,考虑到“假就业”,这个数字仍然较低,他指的是智障人士从雇主那里得到薪水但从不离开家的做法。

However, a survey conducted during the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) by Xu Jiacheng, former dean of the department of special education at Beijing Union University, showed that more than 80 percent of people ages 18 to 60 with intellectual disabilities were willing to work.

然而,第十个五年计划期间(2001-2005年)进行了调查,通过徐佳诚,在北京联合大学特殊教育系的前系主任,表明以上的人年龄在18到60智力残疾80%愿意工作。

"In the end, most of them stay at home or go to welfare institutions when they graduate from special schools," Xu said.

徐说:“最后,大多数学生毕业后都会留在家里或去福利院上学。”。

The low employment rate is not unique to China. A report by the World Labor Organization said the circumstances of the intellectually disabled are "equally alarming" around the world, irrespective of culture or economic circumstances.

就业率低是不是唯一的中国。世界劳工组织的一份报告称,无论文化或经济状况如何,智障人士在世界各地的处境“同样令人担忧”。

A 2006 survey by the Canadian Association for Community Living showed that 27 percent of people with intellectual disabilities were employed that year, lower than any other disabled group.

加拿大社区生活协会2006的一项调查显示,当年有27%的智障人士受雇,比任何其他残疾人士都低。

According to Zhang, the rate is low in a Chinese context. "Compared with Western countries, China's welfare system is not as mature, and a job means a lot to the intellectually disabled and their families," he said, adding that employment fulfills a psychological need for people in the group.

根据张的说法,在中国背景下这个比率很低。”与西方国家相比,中国的福利制度不成熟,和一份工作意味着很多智障人士和他们的家庭,”他说,补充说,就业满足组中的人的心理需要。

Zhang Zhenfei, head of the employment and poverty alleviation department of the China Disabled Person's Federation, said despite regulations to urge employers to take on more intellectually disabled people "the figure is much lower than for the physically disabled, which is around 40 percent".

张振飞的就业和中国残疾人联合会扶贫部门的负责人,说尽管条例要求雇主承担更多的智障人士“数字比残障的低得多,这大约是40%”。

In 2007, the State Council, China's Cabinet, passed the Regulation on the Employment of the Disabled which requires that businesses ensure that at least 1.5 percent of their employees are from disabled groups.

2007,国务院,中国的内阁,通过调节对残疾人要求企业保证1.5%以上的员工都是从残疾人群体的就业。

Employers who fail to meet the target must pay a variable sum to the Employment Security Fund for the Disabled. If a company has no disabled employees, the amount it pays is equal to the total salaries paid the previous year multiplied by the percentage of disabled employees stipulated by local governments.

未能达到目标的雇主必须向残疾就业保障基金支付一笔可变数额的款项。如果公司没有残疾雇员,其支付的数额等于前一年支付的工资总额乘以地方政府规定的残疾雇员的百分比。

Liu Shunli and Yang Xiao pose for a group photo with other store assistants at the bakery in Beijing.

一组照片与其他店员在北京的面包店,刘舜丽和肖央构成的。

Efforts expanded

努力扩大

To help more intellectually disabled people get jobs, the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disability and their Relatives and other nonprofits are training more mentors and expanding the Supported Employment Program nationwide.

为了帮助更多的智障人士就业,智力残疾人和他们的亲属和其他非营利组织的中国人协会培训更多的导师和扩大就业援助计划在全国范围内。

In 2014, the association began working with the International Labor Organization to train people with knowledge of psychology and social work as mentors for the intellectually disabled. "So far, about 400 are in place, and the number is expected to exceed 2,500 by 2020," Zhang Baolin said.

2014,该协会开始与国际劳工组织合作,培训具有心理学和社会工作知识的人,作为智障人士的导师。到目前为止,约有400的地方,而且人数预计将超过2500 2020,”张宝琳说。

Feng, Lizhi's director, said the organization has been recruiting and training mentors since it was founded in 2000, and has expanded the program to five provinces, including Hunan, Shaanxi and Qinghai. About 90 people with intellectual disabilities have gained jobs with the help of their mentors. "We plan to expand the program," she said, adding that there's still room for development of the Supported Employment Program.

冯、Lizhi的主任,说该组织已经招募和培训导师,因为它成立于2000,和扩大计划的五个省份,包括湖南,陕西,青海。大约90名智障人士在导师的帮助下获得了工作。我们计划扩大这个项目,”她补充说,仍然有发展支持的就业计划的空间。

"The 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) is pressing for more employment mentors for the intellectually disabled, but it does not specify how to channel them to where they are most needed."

“第十三个五年计划(2016-20)呼吁为智障人士就业导师,但并没有详细说明如何引导他们到最需要他们的地方。”

 

Liu Shunli, 24, who has Down syndrome, mops the floor at a branch of the Auspicious Phoenix Bakery in Beijing.[Photo by Zou Hong/China Daily]

刘舜丽,24岁,患有唐氏综合症,拖拖地板在北京吉祥凤凰面包店的一个分支。[邹红/中国日报图片]

The government and NGOs are working together to ensure that people can obtain work and improve their lives, as Li Lei reports.

政府和非政府组织正在共同努力,确保人们能够获得工作并改善他们的生活,正如李磊所报告的那样。

In some developed countries, people with intellectual disabilities, such as autism, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome are enrolled in supported employment programs that offer them the opportunity to work. Now China is catching up.

在一些发达国家,患有智力残疾的人,如自闭症、脑瘫和唐氏综合症患者,被纳入支持就业计划,为他们提供工作机会。现在中国正在迎头赶上。

Liu Shunli could be mistaken for a regular store assistant were it not for his clumsy movements and the meticulousness way he performs his tasks, such as attaching price tags to containers, folding cake boxes and mopping the floor at a branch of the Auspicious Phoenix Bakery in Beijing's Shijingshan district.

刘舜丽可能被误认为是一个普通的店员要不是他笨拙的动作和精细的方式,他执行他的任务,如贴价格标签的容器,折叠的蛋糕盒和拖地的吉祥凤凰的面包店在北京的一个分支,是石景山区。

The 24-year-old, who has Down syndrome, has been working at the bakery six days per week from 8 am till 5 pm for more than seven years. He earns about 2,000 yuan ($300) a month, the same as his able-bodied colleagues.

这位患有唐氏综合症的24岁患者,每周早上8点到下午5点工作六天,每周工作七年以上。他每月收入约2000元(合300美元),与他身强力壮的同事一样。

"I like working here. I can earn my own money, and I also have friends here," he said.

“我喜欢在这里工作。我能挣到我自己的钱,我也有朋友在这里,“他说。

 

Personnel manager Lu Chang said the bakery has been working with organizations that provide vocational training and rehabilitation services for the intellectually disabled since 2010.

人事经理卢昌说,面包店一直在为自2010以来为智障人士提供职业培训和康复服务的组织工作。

Auspicious Phoenix employs more than 20 intellectually disabled people in the capital, working alongside able-bodied members of staff. "We have about 280 branches across Beijing, which is a huge advantage because it allows us to employ people in the bakeries nearest their homes," Lu said.

吉利凤凰在首都雇用了20多名智障人士,与健全的工作人员一起工作。”我们拥有约280个分支机构在北京,这是一个巨大的优势,因为它允许我们使用在面包店最近的家园的人,”卢说。

Yang Xiao, 28, who is intellectually disabled, attaches price tags to containers at the bakery.[Photo by Zou Hong/China Daily]

肖央,28,谁是智障,高度的价格标签的容器在面包店。[邹红/中国日报图片]

Supported jobs

支持工作

Before joining Auspicious Phoenix, Liu enrolled in the Supported Employment Program and received vocational training at Lizhi, a rehabilitation center and a vocational training school for the intellectually disabled in Beijing's southwestern suburbs.

在加入菲尼克斯吉祥,刘参加了支持就业计划,立志接受职业培训,康复中心和在北京的西南郊区的智力残疾人职业培训学校。

Everyone on the program is assigned a mentor, who helps them to acquire basic work skills, select a suitable job and cope with any problems they face at work.

每个人都有一个导师,帮助他们获得基本的工作技能,选择合适的工作,处理他们在工作中遇到的任何问题。

"At the beginning the mentors join them in the workplace, but they gradually reduce the frequency of their visits. After about six months the person can work independently," said Feng Lu, Lizhi's director.

“开始时,导师加入他们的工作场所,但他们逐渐减少访问的次数。”。大约六个月后能独立工作的人,”Feng Lu说,Lizhi的导演。

The concept of supported employment originated in the United States in the 1970s and was later adopted in some European countries, Japan and regions outside the Chinese mainland, such as Hong Kong. Unlike the Chinese government's Aided Employment Policy - which allows the intellectually disabled to work shorter hours for less money - supported employment stresses integration with society and treats the intellectually disabled like able-bodied employees in terms of workload and pay.

支持性就业的年代起源于美国的概念,后来在一些欧洲国家采用,日本和中国大陆以外的地区,如香港。与中国政府的辅助就业政策不同,这一政策允许智力残疾者在较短的时间内以较少的钱工作。支持的就业强调与社会融合,并在工作量和报酬方面对待智力残疾者,如身强力壮的雇员。

According to a 2011 report by the World Labor Organization, "barriers to a person's participation in general community activities are not solely determined by their impairment, but arise in combination with elements of the environment", such as community attitudes.

根据世界劳工组织的2011份报告,“一个人参与一般社区活动的障碍并不完全取决于他们的残疾,而是与环境因素结合起来”,例如社区态度。

"The goal of supported employment is to guarantee the employment rights of the intellectually disabled and help them adapt to society," Feng said.

冯说:“支持就业的目标是保证智障人士的就业权利,帮助他们适应社会。”。

According to the Second National Census of the Disabled in 2006, the latest available statistics, the employment rate for intellectually disabled people was less than 10 percent, the lowest among all disabled groups. Experts estimate that the figure has not changed in the decade since.

根据2006年度第二次全国残疾人普查,最新的统计数字显示,智障人士的就业率不足10%,是所有残疾人中最低的。专家估计,这一数字自十年以来没有变化。

Zhang Baolin, chairman of the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disability and their Relatives, said more recent surveys conducted by NGOs also suggest that the rate is unchanged. "The figure is lower still if 'fake employment' is taken into consideration," he said, referring to the practice whereby intellectually disabled people receive a salary from employers but never leave their homes.

张宝琳,智力残疾人和他们的亲属的人的中国协会主席,表示最近的调查也表明,非政府组织的速度是不变的。”他说,考虑到“假就业”,这个数字仍然较低,他指的是智障人士从雇主那里得到薪水但从不离开家的做法。

However, a survey conducted during the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) by Xu Jiacheng, former dean of the department of special education at Beijing Union University, showed that more than 80 percent of people ages 18 to 60 with intellectual disabilities were willing to work.

然而,第十个五年计划期间(2001-2005年)进行了调查,通过徐佳诚,在北京联合大学特殊教育系的前系主任,表明以上的人年龄在18到60智力残疾80%愿意工作。

"In the end, most of them stay at home or go to welfare institutions when they graduate from special schools," Xu said.

徐说:“最后,大多数学生毕业后都会留在家里或去福利院上学。”。

The low employment rate is not unique to China. A report by the World Labor Organization said the circumstances of the intellectually disabled are "equally alarming" around the world, irrespective of culture or economic circumstances.

就业率低是不是唯一的中国。世界劳工组织的一份报告称,无论文化或经济状况如何,智障人士在世界各地的处境“同样令人担忧”。

A 2006 survey by the Canadian Association for Community Living showed that 27 percent of people with intellectual disabilities were employed that year, lower than any other disabled group.

加拿大社区生活协会2006的一项调查显示,当年有27%的智障人士受雇,比任何其他残疾人士都低。

According to Zhang, the rate is low in a Chinese context. "Compared with Western countries, China's welfare system is not as mature, and a job means a lot to the intellectually disabled and their families," he said, adding that employment fulfills a psychological need for people in the group.

根据张的说法,在中国背景下这个比率很低。”与西方国家相比,中国的福利制度不成熟,和一份工作意味着很多智障人士和他们的家庭,”他说,补充说,就业满足组中的人的心理需要。

Zhang Zhenfei, head of the employment and poverty alleviation department of the China Disabled Person's Federation, said despite regulations to urge employers to take on more intellectually disabled people "the figure is much lower than for the physically disabled, which is around 40 percent".

张振飞的就业和中国残疾人联合会扶贫部门的负责人,说尽管条例要求雇主承担更多的智障人士“数字比残障的低得多,这大约是40%”。

In 2007, the State Council, China's Cabinet, passed the Regulation on the Employment of the Disabled which requires that businesses ensure that at least 1.5 percent of their employees are from disabled groups.

2007,国务院,中国的内阁,通过调节对残疾人要求企业保证1.5%以上的员工都是从残疾人群体的就业。

Employers who fail to meet the target must pay a variable sum to the Employment Security Fund for the Disabled. If a company has no disabled employees, the amount it pays is equal to the total salaries paid the previous year multiplied by the percentage of disabled employees stipulated by local governments.

未能达到目标的雇主必须向残疾就业保障基金支付一笔可变数额的款项。如果公司没有残疾雇员,其支付的数额等于前一年支付的工资总额乘以地方政府规定的残疾雇员的百分比。

Liu Shunli and Yang Xiao pose for a group photo with other store assistants at the bakery in Beijing.

一组照片与其他店员在北京的面包店,刘舜丽和肖央构成的。

Efforts expanded

努力扩大

To help more intellectually disabled people get jobs, the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disability and their Relatives and other nonprofits are training more mentors and expanding the Supported Employment Program nationwide.

为了帮助更多的智障人士就业,智力残疾人和他们的亲属和其他非营利组织的中国人协会培训更多的导师和扩大就业援助计划在全国范围内。

In 2014, the association began working with the International Labor Organization to train people with knowledge of psychology and social work as mentors for the intellectually disabled. "So far, about 400 are in place, and the number is expected to exceed 2,500 by 2020," Zhang Baolin said.

2014,该协会开始与国际劳工组织合作,培训具有心理学和社会工作知识的人,作为智障人士的导师。到目前为止,约有400的地方,而且人数预计将超过2500 2020,”张宝琳说。

Feng, Lizhi's director, said the organization has been recruiting and training mentors since it was founded in 2000, and has expanded the program to five provinces, including Hunan, Shaanxi and Qinghai. About 90 people with intellectual disabilities have gained jobs with the help of their mentors. "We plan to expand the program," she said, adding that there's still room for development of the Supported Employment Program.

冯、Lizhi的主任,说该组织已经招募和培训导师,因为它成立于2000,和扩大计划的五个省份,包括湖南,陕西,青海。大约90名智障人士在导师的帮助下获得了工作。我们计划扩大这个项目,”她补充说,仍然有发展支持的就业计划的空间。

"The 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) is pressing for more employment mentors for the intellectually disabled, but it does not specify how to channel them to where they are most needed."

“第十三个五年计划(2016-20)呼吁为智障人士就业导师,但并没有详细说明如何引导他们到最需要他们的地方。”

(责任编辑:雪花)